Butterflies of the
Amazon and Andes
Family - HESPERIIDAE
subfamily - PYRGINAE
Tribe - PYRGINI
Satipo, Peru ©
Pyrginae, popularly known as Flats or Spreadwings, are a
cosmopolitan subfamily distributed across temperate and tropical
habitats throughout the world. In the Americas there are 990
species, of which about
580 are assigned to the tribe Pyrgini.
Carrhenes comprises of 13 known species
which are variously distributed from Mexico to Bolivia. They vary
greatly in appearance - bamba is
marbled in contrasting white and earthy brown tones, but others such
callipetes and santes are more
Carrhenes leada is distributed from Venezuela to Peru.
This species is found in disturbed areas of rainforest, including
small clearings, riverbanks, rocky streams, roadsides and other
forest edge habitats. It occurs at altitudes between about 200-800m.
Unknown, but Pyrgine butterflies typically lay their eggs singly on
either the upperside or underside of leaves. The larvae are usually
dull green or brownish, with thin longitudinal lines along the back
and sides, and with dark shiny heads. Most feed on low growing
herbaceous plants, but some feed on the leaves of bushes or trees.
The pupae are usually dark and smooth, with the wing cases in a
contrasting tone or colour. They are formed within silken tents
formed by spinning together the leaves of the foodplant.
Males are often
seen basking on rocks or low foliage in early morning or late