Butterflies of the
Amazon and Andes
Family - NYMPHALIDAE
Tribe - MELITAEINI
Tingo Maria, Peru ©
The tribe Melitaeini
is of worldwide distribution. It includes the Crescents and
Checkerspots, and also many familiar European species such as the
Marsh, Glanville, Spotted and Heath Fritillaries.
There are 2 known
species in the genus Gnathotriche -
Gnathotriche mundina produces several subspecies including
and steinii which each bear a
remarkable resemblance on both wing surfaces, and in behaviour, to
various Acraeines such as Altinote momina,
Abananote erinome. Several other unrelated species from other
subfamilies also mimic these toxic Acraeines including
Castilia perilla, Eresia
actinote ( Melitaeini ), Lymanopoda
acraeida ( Satyrinae ), Paraphthonia
cteatus ( Riodininae ) and several moths in the subfamily
Pericopinae ( Arctiidae ).
Altinote have a closed
cell on the hindwing, enabling them to be distinguished from
Gnathotriche mundina is distributed from Colombia to Bolivia.
This is a cloudforest species found at altitudes between about
The males are commonly found 'mud-puddling' in the company of
Altinote species on road surfaces, along
stream-edges and at other sources of mineral rich moisture.