Butterflies of the
Amazon and Andes
Acraeid Mimic Satyr
Family - NYMPHALIDAE
subfamily - SATYRINAE
Tribe - SATYRINI
Lymanopoda acraeida malia, Manu cloudforest, 1600m, Peru ©
There are 1100 known species of Satyrinae in the neotropical region.
About 570 of these are placed in the
subtribe Pronophilina - a diverse group of high altitude cloudforest
butterflies, all of which are confined to the neotropical region.
The vast majority are found only in the Andes, but 4 species are
known from the Atlantic cloudforests of Brazil, and there are a
further 6 species that are endemic to Guatemala, Costa Rica or
Mexico. More oddly there is one genus Calisto
that is found exclusively on the Caribbean islands of Cuba and
Lymanopoda is comprised of 57 small
species. Many have small white spots arranged in a characteristic
undulating line across the wings. In some species such as
labda and lebbaea
there are beautiful marbled white markings on the underside
Almost all Lymanopoda species are restricted to
the Andes, the only exceptions being cinna
which is Guatemalan and euopis which is
was formerly placed in the genus Trophonina.
but phylogenetic analysis has resulted in its transferral to
underside wings of this species exhibit a remarkable resemblance to
members of the genus
( Heliconiinae, tribe Acraeini ).
has 3 subspecies, found in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia.
Lymanopoda acraeida malia, Manu cloudforest, 1700m, Peru ©
This species breeds in grassy cloudforest habitats at altitudes of
The lifecycle appears to be unrecorded. The following
generalisations are applicable to the subtribe Pronophilina and
probably also apply to
eggs are round, white or pale greenish white, and laid singly on the
foodplants or on surrounding vegetation. The larvae are typically
pale brown, marked along the back and sides with narrow dark
stripes, and tapering towards each end. The head is large in
proportion to the body and has two short forward-pointing horns. The
tip of the abdomen is equipped with a pair of caudal prongs which
are used to flick the frass away from the feeding area.
The larvae of all known Pronophilina feed on
Chusquea - a genus of bamboo which
grows in thickets, mainly along the courses of streams.
Males are usually seen singly or in
two's and three's, imbibing moisture
from damp sand or gravel along roadsides, often in the company of