Butterflies of the
Amazon and Andes
Family - NYMPHALIDAE
subfamily - SATYRINAE
Tribe - SATYRINI
Bosque She'llot, Peru ©
There are 1100 known species of Satyrinae in the neotropical region.
About 570 of these are placed in the subtribe Pronophilina - a
diverse group of high altitude cloudforest butterflies, all of which
are confined to the neotropical region. The vast majority are found
only in the Andes, but 4 species are known from the Atlantic
cloudforests of Brazil, and there are a further 6 species that are
endemic to Guatemala, Costa Rica or Mexico. More oddly there is one
genus Calisto that is found exclusively
on the Caribbean islands of Cuba and Hispaniola.
Lymanopoda is comprised of 57 small
species. They are typically brown in colour, and have small ocelli
or spots arranged in a characteristic undulating line across both
wings. In some species such as apulia
and albomaculata these spots are
extremely conspicuous, while in others including
obsoleta they are often reduced to the
point of being almost obsolete.
Lymanopoda obsoleta occurs in Panama,
Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia.
Tatama NP, Colombia ©
This is a high altitude cloudforest species, found at elevations
between about 1500-2600m.
The lifecycle appears to be unrecorded. The following
generalisations are applicable to the subtribe Pronophilina and
probably also apply to Lymanopoda: The
eggs are round, white or pale greenish white, and laid singly on the
foodplants or on surrounding vegetation. The larvae are typically
pale brown, marked along the back and sides with narrow dark
stripes, and tapering towards each end. The head is large in
proportion to the body and has two short forward-pointing horns. The
tip of the abdomen is equipped with a pair of caudal prongs which
are used to flick the frass away from the feeding area. The larvae
of all known Pronophilina feed on Chusquea
- a genus of bamboo which grows in thickets, mainly along the
courses of streams.
of this and most other Lymanopoda species
can be seen imbibing mineralised moisture from unmade road surfaces,
damp ground beside small streams, and sometimes from dung or carrion.
They are most commonly observed when conditions are hazy or slightly
overcast. In warm sunny weather they tend to retire into the forest
She'llot, Peru ©