Butterflies of the
Amazon and Andes
Family - NYMPHALIDAE
subfamily - SATYRINAE
Tribe - SATYRINI
Bosque Sho'llet, Peru ©
There are 1100 known species of Satyrinae in the neotropical region.
About 570 of these are placed in the
subtribe Pronophilina - a diverse group of high altitude cloudforest
butterflies, all of which are confined to the neotropical region.
The vast majority are found only in the Andes, but 4 species are
known from the Atlantic cloudforests of Brazil, and there are a
further 6 species that are endemic to Guatemala, Costa Rica or
Mexico. More oddly there is one genus Calisto
that is found exclusively on the Caribbean islands of Cuba and
Lymanopoda is comprised of 57 small
species. They are typically brown in colour, and have small ocelli
or spots arranged in a characteristic undulating line across both
wings. In some species such as apulia
and albomaculata these spots are highly
conspicuous, while in others such as obsoleta
they are greatly reduced.
Lymanopoda rana was
formerly regarded as a subspecies of
ferruginosa but differs in being larger. Unlike
ferruginosa it has a rusty area over
the basal two-thirds of the underside forewing, and the underside
hindwing is more strongly marked, with more prominent white spots
set within elongated black ocelli. Both species are sympatric at
lower elevations, but rana is found at
elevations as high as 2400m, which is above the elevational limit of
is endemic to central and northern Peru.
This is a high altitude cloudforest species, occurring at elevations
between about 1800-2400m.
The lifecycle appears to be unrecorded. The following
generalisations are applicable to the subtribe Pronophilina and
probably also apply to
eggs are round, white or pale greenish white, and laid singly on the
foodplants or on surrounding vegetation. The larvae are typically
pale brown, marked along the back and sides with narrow dark
stripes, and tapering towards each end. The head is large in
proportion to the body and has two short forward-pointing horns. The
tip of the abdomen is equipped with a pair of caudal prongs which
are used to flick the frass away from the feeding area.
The larvae of all known Pronophilina feed on
Chusquea - a genus of bamboo which
grows in thickets, mainly along the courses of streams.
is usually seen as singletons amidst mixed Pronophiline aggregations,
drinking at damp spots along roadsides or the edges of streams.
Bosque Sho'llet, Peru ©