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Butterflies of Europe
Western Dappled White
Euchloe crameri  BUTLER, 1869
Family - PIERIDAE
subfamily - PIERINAE
Tribe - PIERINI
Euchloe crameri, Galera, Andalucia, Spain Peter Bruce-Jones
Introduction
The genus Euchloe consists of between 17-30 species depending upon taxonomic viewpoint. Six of the European taxa i.e. crameri, ausonia, insularis, tagis, falloui and belemia are generally accepted as valid species, but simplonia is regarded by some as a synonym or subspecies of ausonia.
Most Euchloe species have white uppersides with black apical markings and a black bar at the end of the discal cell on the forewing. The underside hindwings are white, heavily peppered with yellow and black scales which create an illusion of green colouration. The green markings take the form of blotches or stripes according to species, and sometimes almost obscure the underlying white.
In addition to the white species there is also a subgroup of butterflies in which the ground colour is bright greenish-yellow. This group comprises of 8 species: charlonia, bazae, lucilla, penia, tomyris, lessei, transcaspica and ziayani which are normally treated under the genus Elphinstonia.

Euchloe crameri is found in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt.

Habitats
This species is most abundant on disturbed cultivated ground in hot dry open areas. It can be found at elevations between sea level and about 2000m.
Lifecycle

The larval foodplants include Moricandia, Biscutella, Sinapis, Iberis, Isatis and Raphanus - all being genera of Brassicaceae. The eggs are laid singly on the flowerbuds. The larvae feed on the flowers and developing seedpods. The pupae sometimes aestivate for 2 or more seasons.

Adult behaviour

In the morning, males patrol incessantly in search of females. Both sexes nectar at a wide variety of flowers but show a preference for Brassicaceae.

 

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