Butterflies of the Indian subcontinent
Dark Clouded Yellow
Colias fieldii  MENETRIES, 1855
subfamily - COLIADINAE
Tribe -
Colias fieldii male, Yoksam, West Sikkim, India   Adrian Hoskins
There are over 80 species of Colias worldwide, of which the majority are inhabitants of temperate grasslands or sub-arctic tundra. In South America there are 5 species found on the Andean paramo grasslands. There are 18 species in North America and one species endemic to Hawaii. There are 7 species in India: phicimone and ladakensis from Kashmir; erate which occurs in the Nilgiri hills and in north India; berylla, dubia and stoliczkana which are found in Sikkim; and fieldii which is common and widespread across the Himalayan foothills.
All Colias species are migratory in behaviour. Some simply move up and down mountainsides as the seasons advance, to take advantage of fresh growth of their larval foodplants and adult nectar sources. Others undertake much longer migrations - e.g. Colias crocea, which migrates annually from North Africa to northern Europe.
Colias are collectively known as Sulphurs in North America, but elsewhere in the world they are called Clouded Yellows. On the upper surface of the wings the ground colour varies from pure white to deep orange according to species, but most are some shade of yellow. Males generally have narrow black wing borders. In females the borders are much wider, and the ground colour is paler.
Colias fieldii has a range extending from Iran to China.
Due to it's migratory behaviour, this species can be found in almost any habitat within it's range, but is most abundant in ungrazed grassy areas where herbaceous Fabaceae are profuse. It is generally a montane species, found at elevations between about 1000-2500m.
The eggs are cream coloured when first laid, but turn crimson as the larva develops within. They are laid singly on the leaflets of Fabaceae.
Adult behaviour
Males of all Colias species have a distinctive cycle of behaviour. They patrol back and forth over the breeding sites in search of females for several minutes at a time, and then suddenly swoop down and settle on bare soil. There they remain for several more minutes, even in hot sunny conditions when they would be expected to continue flying. After resting for a while they take flight again, but instead of patrolling for females they fly from flower to flower, nectaring for a few seconds before moving on to the next. This cycle is repeated throughout the morning until a receptive female is encountered. Copulation follows after a brief chase, and lasts for about an hour.
Females, after mating, follow a different cycle of behaviour. They typically spend several minutes nectaring, then rest for a while, and then go on an egg-laying run, during which they fly rapidly back and forth across the breeding site, stopping here and there for a moment to glue an egg to a leaf. They then have a rest and recovery period of about 15 minutes before repeating the cycle.
Colias fieldii female, Yoksam, West Sikkim, India Adrian Hoskins


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