Family - NYMPHALIDAE
subfamily - DANAINAE
Tribe - DANAINI
Tirumala limniace, Chilapata, West Bengal, India ©
The subfamily Danainae, which includes the
Monarchs & Tigers, Nymphs and Crows, comprises of about 190 species
The genus Tirumala
is structurally closer to Danaus than
to the other similarly marked genera i.e.
Ideopsis and Parantica.
10 Tirumala species, 2 of which occur
in Africa, with the remainder distributed across various parts of
tropical and sub-tropical Asia, although one species
hamata has a range extending from
Arabia to Australia.
is a widespread
species, found from Afghanistan to the Philippines, and south to
Sulawesi, Java, Bali and Timor. It is fairly common in India, Sri
Lanka, lowland Nepal, Burma and Thailand, but is is rare on the
Malay peninsula, and absent from Sumatra and Borneo.
This species occurs in many habitats ranging from Acacia scrub to
dry deciduous woodlands, humid sub-tropical forests, gardens and
parks at altitudes between sea level and about 300m.
foodplants include Dreggea,
butterflies are usually encountered singly or in two's and three's.
They have a slow undulating flight, with fairly shallow wing beats,
and patrol flowery areas.
Tirumala limniace, female, Weligaththa,
Sri Lanka ©