Thailand, Malaysia &
Family - PIERIDAE
subfamily - PIERINAE
There is a certain amount of conjecture among
entomologists regarding the classification of
Appias. Some consider that the South American species
drusilla, and the African
sylvia and lasti
belong in this genus, while others prefer to place them in
Glutophrissa. Disregarding those, there
23-28 species that
are currently accepted as members of Appias,
comprising 7-8 species from the Australian region, and 16-20 from
the Oriental region. The estimates vary because of uncertainties
about the status of some taxa which are variously regarded as either
true species or subspecies.
Appias cardena is one of the 9 species
found in peninsular Malaysia. Like most other
Appias species it is white on the upperside, with dark
markings on the outer area of the wings. The dark veins on the
underside distinguish it from other members of the genus.
This species is normally found in disturbed
forest edge habitats at altitudes from 0-500m but during migrations
it will fly over mountain passes as high as 2000 metres.
I have no data regarding
cardena, but the larvae of other Appias
species, e.g. lyncida and
albina are green, with a pair of anal
points. They feed on Capparis.
Males are generally
among aggregations of Pierinae and Leptocircini, imbibing
mineralised moisture from damp sand in semi-shaded conditions in
open forest. Females are seen less frequently but can sometimes be
found nectaring at flowers along forest paths or roadsides.
Appias cardena perakana,
Bukit Tapah, West Malaysia ©