Butterflies of Thailand, Malaysia & Borneo
Horsfield's Six-ring
Ypthima horsfieldii  MOORE, 1884
subfamily - SATYRINAE
subtribe - SATYRINA

Ypthima horsfieldii humei, Kuala Woh, West Malaysia  Adrian Hoskins
The genus Ypthima comprises of 108 currently described species. 16 of these are restricted to the Afrotropical region; one is found only in Australia and Papua New Guinea; and the remainder are mostly found in various parts of the Oriental and south-east Holarctic regions. Additionally there is a single very wide-ranging species asterope, which is found in sub-Saharan Africa, Arabia, Turkey, Lebanon, and on the Indian sub-continent.
The butterflies are instantly recognisable as a group, all being marked with fine striations on the underside, and possessing a submarginal series of yellow-ringed black ocelli.
There are 9 species found in Malaysia ( including Sabah and Sarawak in Borneo ), the commonest of which is Ypthima pandocus, which has 3 ocelli on the underside hindwings - hence its name, the Common Three-ring.
The species illustrated here was at one time thought to be a subspecies of the Common Five-ring Ypthima baldus, and was given the name Ypthima baldus humei. Entomologists later decided that the Malaysian race of this butterfly should be transferred to another species, and gave it the name of Ypthima horsfieldii humei. Note that although baldus is called a 'Five-ring', it actually has 6 rings, as does horsfieldii, but the 2 rings nearest the tornus are conjoined.
Ypthima horsfieldii is found from peninsular Malaysia to Borneo and Java.
This species is found in grassy forest edge habitats and secondary growth, at elevations between sea level and about 400 metres. It is replaced in more open grassland by Ypthima baldus, in which the ocelli are significantly larger.
The eggs are laid singly on the upperside of blades of grass. They are globular, slightly flattened at the base, bluish-white in colour, and covered in numerous minute depressions.
The caterpillar when fully grown is a very pale pinkish brown colour, with a series of darker and lighter stripes along the back and sides. Each body segment is covered in tiny tubercules arranged in vertical rows, giving the caterpillar a very rough texture. The head is also covered in tubercules, and bears a pair of very short horns. The anal segment bears the usual Satyrine caudal prongs.
The chrysalis is slightly squarish in cross-section, and is earthy brown, with darker wing cases. It is suspended by the cremaster from grass stems or twigs.
Adult behaviour
Both sexes prefer flying in overcast weather, and are not averse to flying in light rain. They can be found basking on leaf litter or low herbage, but are quite nervous in behaviour; and if disturbed tend to spend a considerable time fluttering about close to the ground before eventually settling.


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