Butterflies of Mexico, USA & Canada
Northern Buckeye
Junonia coenia  HUBNER, 1822
subfamily - NYMPHALINAE
Junonia coenia Indiana, USA Chris Orpin
The tribe Junoniini includes some of the most colourful and instantly recognisable butterflies in the world, including the African Precis Pansies and Salamis Mother of Pearl butterflies, and the Asian Kallima Dead Leaf butterflies. In the Americas they are represented by the genera Anartia, Siproeta, Hypolimnas, Metamorpha, Napeocles and Junonia. The latter genus is very closely allied to Precis, in fact the two were formerly regarded as synonymous.
There are 4 species of Junonia in the Americas - coenia, evarete, genoveva and vestina, which are collectively known as the Buckeyes because of their prominent ocelli.
Junonia coenia is found in the southern states of the USA, and in Cuba and the Bahamas.
Northern Buckeyes typically occur in small colonies of about 10-20 adults. They tend to be found in warm open habitats including forest clearings, meadows, dunes, riparian woodlands, riverbanks and along roadsides where there is a mixture of bare ground, grassland and scrubby vegetation. They can be found at altitudes between sea level and about 1000m.
The larval foodplants include Plantago, Maurandya ( Plantaginaceae ), Agalinis ( Scrophulariaceae ) and Ruellia ( Acanthaceae ).
Adult behaviour

Males are commonly observed basking on bare ground or logs with their wings fully or partly open depending on the ambient temperature. They are extremely alert at all times and instantly fly up if disturbed but usually return within a few seconds to their original position or somewhere nearby.

In late afternoon when temperatures begin to drop, both sexes gather at roosting sites, typically in sheltered areas in forest clearings or scrubland, where they roost in a slightly head-down posture on flowerheads or on the stems or leaf-blades of coarse grasses.



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